Greek tragedy Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance -drama that formed an important part of the theatrical culture of the city-state. The presentations took the form of a contest between three playwrights, who presented their works on three successive days.
Aristotelian hypothesis[ edit ] The origin of the word tragedy has been a matter of discussion from ancient times. The primary source of knowledge on the question is the Poetics of Aristotle.
Aristotle was able to gather first-hand documentation from theater performance in Atticawhich is inaccessible to scholars today.
His work is therefore invaluable for the study of ancient tragedy, even if his testimony is open to doubt on some points. According to Aristotle, tragedy evolved from the satyr dithyramban Ancient Greek hymnwhich was sung along with dancing in honor of Dionysus. Others suggest that the term came into being when the legendary Thespis the root for the English word thespian competed in the first tragic competition for the prize of a goat hence tragedy.
The Oxford English Dictionary adds to the standard reference to "goat song", that: Jane Ellen Harrison pointed out that Dionysus, god of wine a drink of the wealthy classes was actually preceded by Dionysus, god of beer a drink of the working classes. Athenian beer was obtained from the fermentation of barley, which is tragos in Greek.
Thus, it is likely that the term was originally meant to be "odes to spelt ," and later on, it was extended to other meanings of the same name. Ruth Scodel notes that, due to lack of evidence and doubtful reliability of sources, we know nearly nothing about tragedy's origin.
Winnington-Ingram points out that we can easily trace various influences from other genres.
The play MacBeth conforms to the definition of a tragedy: “A play in verse or in prose dealing with tragic events, usually ending in the downfall of the protagonist”1. However, many sections of MacBeth do not describe a tragic hero, but merely a villain or a lord who is . Of the three types of plays recognized in the Shakespeare First Folio-- Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies -- the last has been the most discussed annnd is clearest in outline. 1. Tragedy must end in some tremendous catastrophe involving in Elizabethan practice the death of the principal character. 2. Start studying THAR Ch. What is a play?. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. Tragic suffering differs from pathetic or maudlin feelings in that 1) the cause of tragic suffering is narrated rather than dramatized does not end in a death or grisly demise 4) is much longer than.
How these have come to be associated with one another remains a mystery however. Speculating on the problem, Scodel writes that: First, somebody created a new kind of performance by combining a speaker with a chorus and putting both speaker and chorus in disguise as characters in a story from legend or history.
Second, this performance was made part of the City Dionysia at Athens. Third, regulations defined how it was to be managed and paid for. It is theoretically possible that all these were simultaneous, but it is not likely. This was brief and burlesque in tone because it contained elements of the Satyr play.
Gradually, the language became more serious and the meter changed from trochaic tetrameter to the more prosaic iambic trimeter. In Herodotus Histories  and later sources,  the lyric poet Arion of Methymna is said to be the inventor of the dithyramb.
The dithyramb was originally improvised, but later written down before performance. The Greek chorus of up to 50 men and boys danced and sang in a circle, probably accompanied by an aulosrelating to some event in the life of Dionysus. As tragedy developed, the actors began to interact more with each other, and the role of the chorus became smaller.
He answers the questions of the chorus and so evokes their songs.In terms of genre, tragedy requires a tragic hero (and usually it is a man): one who is usually tempted to perform a deed (frequently, though not always, a murder), after which the hero’s fortunes eventually suffer a decline, ending with his death (or her death, as in the case of Antigone – though whether Antigone is the tragic ‘hero.
William Shakespeare quotes about death. From Wikiquote.
Jump to navigation Jump to search. William Shakespeare, in his many plays, and in his sonnets, produced a vast number of quotes on the subject of death. Seeing that death, a necessary end, Will come when it will come.
Act II, scene 2, line "A Shakespearean tragedy is a five act play ending in the death of most of the major characters." This statement with others of its kind may accurately describe many of Shakespeare's plays, but if we are looking for the essence of Shakespearean tragedy we must look in an entirely different realm.
Antigone, the titular character, is the play's protagonist. She chooses the morally correct route in performing what the gods say she must: she provides a ritual burial of her brother, Polyneices.
In The Death of Tragedy () George Steiner outlined the characteristics of Greek tragedy and the traditions that developed from that period.
In the Foreword () to a new edition of his book Steiner concluded that ‘the dramas of Shakespeare are not a renascence of or a humanistic variant of the absolute tragic model. Greek tragedy is a form of theatre from Ancient Greece and Asia Minor.
It reached its most significant form in Athens in the 5th century BC, the works of which are sometimes called Attic tragedy.