The American and British intelligence communities had been aware since the spring of that some rebel units in Syria were developing chemical weapons. The Porton Down report caused the joint chiefs to go to the president with a more serious worry: The rat line, authorised in earlywas used to funnel weapons and ammunition from Libya via southern Turkey and across the Syrian border to the opposition. Many of those in Syria who ultimately received the weapons were jihadists, some of them affiliated with al-Qaida.
General Guidelines[ edit ] Healthy China [ edit ] In OctoberChen Zhu, head of the Ministry of Health, declared the pursuit of Healthy Chinaa program to provide universal healthcare access and treatment for all of China bymostly by revised policies in nutritionagriculturefood, and social marketing.
It especially targets public awareness for obesityphysical inactivity, and poor dietary choices. Healthy China focuses the most on urban, populous areas that are heavily influenced by globalization and modernity.
Many of the aims of Healthy China are concentrated to more-urban areas under Western influences. Diet is causing obesity issues, and an influx of modern transportation Analysis of chinas healthcare systems negatively affecting urban environments and thus health.
Rural areas saw the biggest need for healthcare reform, and the Rural Co-operative Medical Scheme RCMS was established as a three-tier system for rural healthcare access.
The RCMS functioned on a pre-payment plan that consisted of individual income contribution, a village collective welfare Fund, and subsidies from higher government. Township health centers were the second tier of the RCMS, consisting of small, outpatient clinics that primarily hired medical professionals that were subsidized by the Chinese government.
Together with barefoot doctors, township health centers were utilized for most common illnesses. The third tier of the CMS, county hospitals, was for the most seriously ill patients.
They were primarily funded by the government but also collaborated with local systems for resources equipment, physicians, etc. For example, life expectancy has almost doubled from 35 to 69 yearsand infant mortality has been slashed from deaths to 40 deaths for every live births. Also, the malaria rate has dropped from 5.
The increase in health has been from both the central and local government and community efforts to increase good health. Campaigns sought to prevent diseases and halt the spread of agents of disease like mosquitoes causing malaria.
Attempts to raise public awareness of health were especially emphasized. However, as a result of agricultural sector reform and end of People's Commune in the s, the RCMS lost its economic and organizational basis.
Therefore, RCMS collapsed, with only 9. Pilots started infollowed by fast expansion. Funds of NRCMS are provided by local and central government for poorer regions together, which contrasts with the old RCMS that was almost completely funded by the Chinese government and extended universally across all parts of China.
NRCMS rapidly expanded, with increasing service bundle. It provided better access to higher quality service, and partly controlled medical costs. Besides, NRCMS is appropriate and convenient for China's enormous number of migrant workers who used to have limited access to healthcare.
While these costs are covered, most outpatient visits requires substantial individual payment.
After major economic reforms, cost of healthcare rose rapidly. Besides, many urban employees lost their healthcare insurance due to reforms in state-owned-enterprises. Urban areas, therefore, saw a rising need for access to affordable healthcare. URBMI is a government-subsidized, household-level-voluntary medical insurance, administrated at municipal level.
Funds of URBMI mainly rely on individual contributions yuan for adults, pilotand partly government contributions at least 80 yuan per capita. Additional government contributions are given to undeveloped central and western regions and poor or disabled individuals.
They also bear major teaching, training and research responsibilities. Most hospitals are located in cities. However, several problems posts challenges to accessible and affordable hospital healthcare.
To begin with, prices of medicine are set unreasonably high to make up for low service price. Doctors are also dissatisfied about their income. Reforms on grass-root facilities focus on their cooperation and responsibility distribution between hospitals, motivate and compensate grass-level health personnel.
All grass-root healthcare facilities are required to prepare, use and sell listed drugs almost exclusively. Price of drugs are negotiated by regional government and drug producers while they are sold at zero profit at grass-root facilities. Reimbursement rate for ED is set notably higher.
EDL is subject to change according to needs and drug development. Analysis pointed out that local governments' power in adding new drugs to their EDL is prone to rent-seeking behaviors and protectionism for local medicine industry.
Besides, the new guideline removed the restriction of using unlisted drugs, as this regulation caused in shortage of drugs in grass-root facilities. Mckinsey survey in found that over 2 thirds top executives from multinational drug companies expected EDS would have negative effect on their business.
The project was the 8th World Bank project in China, and was implemented between and by the Government of China in 97 poor rural counties in which 45 million people live. Instead of focusing on eradicating a specific disease, as previous World Bank projects had done, the Health Services Project was a general attempt to reform healthcare.The healthcare reform in China refers to the previous and ongoing healthcare system transition in modern China.
China's government, specifically the National Health and Family Planning Commission (formerly the Ministry of Health), plays a leading role in these reforms. China’s Healthcare System and Reform China’s healthcare system and policy reforms in the context of the global economy. Following a value- and the producers (manufacturers) in China’s system.
It also provides a detailed analysis of the historical development of China’s healthcare system, the current state of its broad reforms. "One country, two systems" is a constitutional principle formulated by Deng Xiaoping, the Paramount Leader of the People's Republic of China (PRC), for the reunification of China during the early s.
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The present global verve about artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning technologies has resonated in China as much as anywhere on earth.