Institutional Constraints and Deforestation:
Stright, Lear, and Bennett A chipped-stone projectile point lies amid broken shell and other beach detritus washed onshore. Photo by David Crain. Backhoe Trench 1, dug in August,was one of several backhoe trenches dug through the beach and marsh sediments before pipeline construction.
No archeological deposits were found. Photo by Thomas R.
Geologic cross-section of Clam Lake immediately inland from McFaddin Beach, reconstructed by coring through the marsh. Adapted from Morton et al. Images adapted from illustrations by K.
Milliken from Anderson The Late Paleoindian shoreline at 10, B. See shoreline at later time periods: It seems clear that artifacts and fossils are arriving on the beach from a submerged, offshore source area, perhaps at no great distance or depth in the Gulf.
It is also clear that both the present beach area and the offshore source were actually high and dry parts of the inland coastal zone until relatively recently in geologic history.
This was an interfluvial area between the Trinity River valley to the southwest and the Sabine River valley to the northeast. Uranium-thorium dating is used to fix the ages of coral reefs that were killed by postglacial sea level rise. These new studies suggest that maximum glaciation and consequently, minimum sea levels occurred about 26, calendar years ago, with sea level about meters lower than at present.
This is about years earlier and five meters deeper than the consensus values that most geologists have customarily used 21, calendar years, or 18, radiocarbon years for the Last Glacial Maximum, and a m lowering. It should also be noted that this is just the latest lowering of Gulf sea level during the Pleistocene — there were earlier highstands and lowstands.
By 14, years ago, sea level was rising rapidly because of ice sheet melting. The oldest radiocarbon dated shell or peat samples cored from the northern Gulf are about 19, calendar years old.
If we rely on the Barbados coral data, by about 13, calendar years B. At about 10, calendar years B. At about cal B.
The rate of sea level rise and flooding of the continental shelf was especially rapid in the early Holocene from about to cal B. By the time these were discarded, the source area may well have been flooded, which raises the possibility that these most recent artifacts might have been discarded on the beach, rather than washing ashore like the earlier material.
During the period of lowered sea level, the combined channels of the Sabine River and Calcasieu River incised the exposed continental shelf, running southwestward roughly parallel to the present coast and about 30 km out from it, joining the Trinity River channel, then turning southward.
The Deweyville terrace system that flanks these rivers continues onto the continental shelf, running under the waters of the Gulf. As sea level rose, the river valley was flooded, with the contact between fresh and sea water turned into an estuary. Marine coring in the s by archeologists penetrated a Rangia shell deposit and a bone concentration with burned and unburned bone water snake, amphibian, fishfish scales, seeds, and nutshell.
These may be bayside archeological sites occupied as the Gulf waters flooded what had been an estuary.
Estuarine deposits dating from to cal B. At cal B. By cal B.Ecological economics (also called eco-economics, ecolonomy or bioeconomics of Georgescu-Roegen) is both a transdisciplinary and an interdisciplinary field of academic research addressing the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems, both intertemporally and spatially.
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By treating the economy as a . The Edwards Aquifer Research and Data Center (EARDC) was established in by special funding for Southwest Texas State University to provide a public service in .
E02 - DEVELOPMENTS IN ENGINEERING.
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McFaddin Beach is a kilometer long stretch of sandy beach in Jefferson County on the upper Texas Gulf coast, extending from High Island on the west to Sea Rim State Park on the east. Latest environmental news, features and updates. Pictures, video and more.