Hebrew Names and the Bible Brill,J. These books will be joined shortly by Joel H. Hunt and William M.
Harmony across morphemes active process: It is well attested on all continents, in all major language families, and can be based on just about every phonological feature that has been used to crossclassify the vowel space: The phonological properties and typological profile of vowel harmony and vowel-consonant harmony systems have been studied in great detail in the phonological literature see, e.
Another possible manifestation of harmony is for consonants of a particular type to interact i. This phenomenon is known as consonant harmony, and is the focus of the present study. This in turn has stood in the way of developing a full understanding of the nature and characteristics of this phonological phenomenon.
Nevertheless, individual cases of consonant harmony have figured prominently in the literature on phonological theory over the past few decades, especially as regards the question of locality in phonological interactions. However, that discussion has tended to be based on a very small number of well known cases.
Even the most ambitious survey-oriented studies to deal with consonant harmony systems, Shaw and Gafos are relatively limited in their scope and the number of cases surveyed; the same is true of Oddenwhich also deserves mention here, though it is not focused on consonant harmony in particular.
The size of the database that underlies this study containing over cases, drawn from about separate languages or dialects allows several important typological generalizations to emerge, which had eluded previous researchers in this area, and which strongly suggest that consonant harmony is fundamentally different from most cases of vowel harmony as well as vowel-consonant harmony.
These empirical generalizations in turn form the basis of a formal phonological analysis of consonant harmony, couched in the constraint-based and outputoriented framework of Optimality Theory OT; Prince and Smolensky ; see also McCarthy a, that is laid out in subsequent chapters.
A Pre-Theoretical Definition In a typological study of the kind undertaken here, it is important to adopt a careful working definition of the phenomenon about to be surveyed. The definition must be wide enough, as one must take care not to build in prior expectations or preconceptions, so as to avoid circularity.
As will be discussed below, an important corollary of the articulatory locality hypothesis is that consonant harmony should only be based on those articulatory parameters that control the shape and orientation of the tongue tip-blade.
This is because these alone are inherently capable of permeating intervening vowels and consonants without interfering significantly with the articulation or acoustic-perceptual characteristics of those intervening segments. These are, of course, precisely the parameters that define coronal-specific distinctions such as dental vs.
The survey in Gafos appears to confirm this prediction, but this is only because that survey is limited a priori to coronal harmony systems. No mention is made of longdistance consonant assimilations that do not involve such coronal-specific distinctions, many of which have been discussed in earlier literature e.
The hypothesis predicts that noncoronal consonant harmony should not exist, but any attested phenomena that might be taken as counterevidence against this prediction are systematically dismissed out of hand.
Long-Distance Interaction in Phonology In order to avoid such circularity, this study will adopt the very simple and relatively theory-neutral working definition of consonant harmony stated in 2: Any assimilatory effect of one consonant on another consonant, or assimilatory cooccurrence restriction holding between two consonants, where: The definition in 2 is also designed to be narrow enough to exclude phenomena that may well turn out to be fundamentally different in kind from consonant harmony.
It should be emphasized that the formulation in 2 does not necessarily encode an implicit assumption that long-distance assimilation and local assimilation are distinct phenomena, governed by entirely different principles.
However, it is quite conceivable that the two differ significantly in some interesting ways.Rose, Sharon. (). Long distance vowel-consonant agreement in Harari. Journal of African Languages and Linguistics 25, O'Bryan, Todd & Sharon Rose.
(). Segmental effects on (de)gemination in Western Gurage. Jan 01, · Managing the military patient with syncope.. PubMed. Parsons, Iain T; Cox, A T; Mollan, I A; Boos, C J. Syncope is a relatively common occurrence in military populations.
It is defined as a transient loss of consciousness due to global cerebral hypoperfusion, characterised by a rapid onset, short duration and a spontaneous and complete recovery. Ling /, 10/02/12 Practise in-class analysis: Harari epenthesis, p.
Assume [tisäbri] is syllabified as [plombier-nemours.com].
INTRODUCTION TO STRESs 1) What is stress? LI Morphophonology and Optimality Theory Optimality Theory is the prevalent theoretical framework for phonological analysis within the generative framework today.
Since its introduction in the s, its use has been extended to account for phenomena in other linguistic subfields like morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and interface areas.
This is just one example of differences between plombier-nemours.comogical RulesAssimilation: sounds become more like neighboring sounds, allowing for ease of articulation or pronunciation; such as vowels are nasalized before nasal consonants- Harmony: non-adjacent vowels become more similar by sharing a feature or set of.
The absence of epenthesis into geminates is attributed to the structural representation of geminates as linked structures. Synchronic metathesis is expressed in terms of competing phonotactic constraints in distinct morphological environments.