A view of the nightlife in the Entertainment District in Downtown Toronto.
On November 15,a few days after Kristallnachta delegation of British Jewish leaders appealed in person to British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain requesting, among other measures, that the British government permit the temporary admission of children and teenagers, who would later return to their native countries.
The Jewish community promised to put up guarantees for the refugee children. The following day, the issue of giving refuge to Jewish children was debated in the British cabinet.
Home Secretary Sir Samuel Hoare said that the country could not admit more refugees without provoking a backlash but Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax suggested that such an act of generosity might have the added benefit of prompting the United States to accept additional immigrants.
The cabinet committee on refugees subsequently decided that the United Kingdom would accept unaccompanied children, ranging from infants to teenagers under the age of No limit to the number of refugees was ever publicly announced.
Secretary Hoare announced the program to the assembled members of the British Parliament at the House of Commons, who broadly welcomed the initiative that would come to be known as the Kindertransport. On November 25,the BBC Home Service radio program aired a public appeal for British citizens to volunteer foster homes and quickly more than offers were received.
The RCM did not insist that prospective homes for Jewish children be Jewish homes nor did they probe too deeply into the motives or character of the foster families - it was sufficient for the houses to look clean and the families to seem respectable.
In Germanya network of organizers was established and these volunteers worked around the clock to make priority lists of the most imperiled teenagers who were in concentration camps or in danger of arrest, Polish children or teenagers threatened with deportation, children in Jewish orphanages, those whose parents were too impoverished to keep them or those whose parents had already been sent to a concentration camp.
The first Kindertransport from Berlin departed on December 1, ; the first from Vienna on December For the first three months of the transports, the children came mainly from Germany and then the emphasis shifted to Austria.
In Marchafter the German army entered Czechoslovakiatransports from Prague were hastily organized and transports of Jewish children from Poland were also arranged in February and August The last group of children from Germany departed on September 1,the day the German army invaded Poland and provoked Great BritainFranceand other countries to declare war.
The last known transport of Kinder left from the Netherlands left on May 14,the day the Dutch army surrendered to Germany. Tragically, hundreds of Kinder were caught in Belgium and the Netherlands during the German invasion, making them subject once more to the Nazi regime and its collaborators.
Upon arrival at port in Great BritainKinder without prearranged foster families were sheltered at temporary holding centers located at summer holiday camps on the cold windy coast of East Anglia — Dovercourt near Harwich — and, for a short period, Pakefield near Lowestoft.
Finding foster families was not always easy, and being chosen for a home was not necessarily the end of discomfort or distress. Some families took in teenage girls as a way of acquiring a maidservant.
There was little sensitivity toward the cultural and religious needs of the children, and, for some, their heritage was all but erased.
A few, mainly the youngest, were given new names, new identities and even a new religion. In the end, many of the children for whom no home could be found were placed on farms or in hostels run by the RCM.
From the moment of their arrival, the children struggled to maintain contact with their parents. At first, letters between parents and children flowed fairly easily and many were filled with hopes and plans for reunion.
The beginning of the war in meant the end of this dream. In addition, the German government restricted the delivery of mail to and from Jews, forcing parents and children to rely on intermediaries or the Red Cross. Bymany of the children stopped receiving letters for reasons they would not understand until later.
Older children suffered a different hardship. Inthe British government ordered the internment of refugees from enemy countries aged to years-old — so-called "enemy aliens. On one shipment to Australia aboard the HMT DuneraI, many of the Kinder were mistreated and a scandal that followed revelations about the mishandling of internment led to a program of releases in late Men in particular were offered the chance to do war work or to enter the Alien Pioneer Corps.
About 1, German and Austrian teenagers served in the British armed forces, including combat units.Eva Schloss, 86, is an Auschwitz survivor and the stepsister of Anne Frank. Both Frank and Schloss were Jewish refugees in Amsterdam together and the pair played together as children until their.
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