How to write an abstract for law article

Philip KoopmanCarnegie Mellon University October, Abstract Because on-line search databases typically contain only abstracts, it is vital to write a complete but concise description of your work to entice potential readers into obtaining a copy of the full paper. This article describes how to write a good computer architecture abstract for both conference and journal papers. Writers should follow a checklist consisting of: Following this checklist should increase the chance of people taking the time to obtain and read your complete paper.

How to write an abstract for law article

The ministerial exception bars claims by clergy of wrongful dismissal by religious institutions. In the years before Hosanna-Tabor, however, courts had ruled in four prominent decisions — two state, and two federal — that suits by clergy for sexual harassment based on a pervasively hostile environment could go forward, notwithstanding the ministerial exception.

The rise of the MeToo movement invites new and more detailed consideration of the tension between the policies behind sexual harassment law and the constitutional values protected by the ministerial exception. Part I describes the contours of the ministerial exception, explains its constitutional provenance, and highlights the issues left open by Hosanna-Tabor.

Ellerth and Faragher v. City of Boca Raton. Part III explores the leading judicial opinions on the relationship between sexual harassment law and the ministerial exception.

These include the germinal state court decisions in Black v. Snyder Minnesota and McKelvey v.


Pierce New Jerseyand the path breaking 9th Circuit decisions in Bollard v. California Province of the Society of Jesus, and Elvig v. In the law that has emerged, the ministerial exception bars adverse job action claims by clergy but does not bar hostile environment claims.


That brief statement, however, masks the analytical complexities and constitutional concerns arising from the interplay between harassment law and the ministerial exception. The sources of tension include the affirmative defenses, requiring employer-created mechanisms for reasonable prevention and correction in sexual harassment cases, as well as matters of discovery and choice of remedies.

Part IV applies our theoretical and doctrinal insights to the major questions raised by this interplay. We explain why the ministerial exception is constitutionally sound, but nevertheless should not bar damage claims for pervasive, hostile environments based on sex.

We offer a tort-based theory of harm as the underpinning of hostile environment doctrine; analyze the tenuous connection between religious belief and sexual harassment of clergy; and unpack constitutional questions of entanglement between church and state that may arise when religious institutions face hostile environment lawsuits.

how to write an abstract for law article

Our analysis should be of interest to scholars of employment law and the Religion Clauses, lawyers litigating such cases, and judges who must decide them.

Unconstitutionally Illegitimate DiscriminationBrandon L. Garrett Faculty Scholarship When government officials express intent to disparage or discriminate against a group, the constitutional consequences can be severe, but they are rarely imposed.

In this Article, I argue that discriminatory motive is and should be enough to declare government acts unconstitutional. Second, I argue that the main reason why is the harm to government legitimacy.

While some argue that the concern with intentional discrimination is its harm, such as its stigmatizing effect, I argue that the focus should not be on harm, but on how it delegitimizes government. I make the descriptive claim that Constitutional doctrine, in its broad outlinesMISSISSIPPI LAW JOURNAL [VOL INTRODUCTION An abstract is a brief summary of a research article that ordinarily appears at the beginning of a manuscript.

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In most academic disciplines, professional research publications include an. Law and economics or economic analysis of law is the application of economic theory (specifically microeconomic theory) to the analysis of law that began mostly with scholars from the Chicago school of plombier-nemours.comic concepts are used to explain the effects of laws, to assess which legal rules are economically efficient, and to predict which legal rules will be promulgated.

Oct 23,  · How (not to) Write an Abstract For SSRN papers, for grant applications, sometimes for law review articles, and other purposes, we often have . An abstract is a short summary — one to three paragraphs — of an article. Some journals include an abstract at the start of the article, or put all the abstracts from an issue on the issue’s table of contents, or put the abstracts on the journal’s Web site.

When you write an abstract, you are marketing your own work--you act as your own PR agent. You've already done the work of writing your article, and now you must do the good work of presenting your research Lite-style to articles editors.

Abstract. Seven studies using experimental and naturalistic methods reveal that upper-class individuals behave more unethically than lower-class individuals.

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