Indeed, looking at his self portraits, we discover the handsome man he was, with his face reflecting the purity of his soul and his intelligence. Self-Portrait, - Detail Museo del Prado, Madrid His contemporaries were impressed by his physical appearance, and his mental and moral qualities, which were no less remarkable. He studied the art principles, made rigorous theoretical observations, meticulously recorded the results of his investigations, and then he gave the resulting written instructions to his contemporaries. In the 16th Century, the city was the chief centre of the German artistic life.
Examples of book references are: In giving the city of publication, an internationally well-known city such as London, The Hague, or New York is given as the city alone.
If the city is not internationally well known, the country or state and country if in the U. An example of a newspaper reference: Advantages[ edit ] The principal advantage of the author—date method is that a reader familiar with a field is likely to recognize a citation without having to check in the references section.
This is most useful in fields whose works are commonly known by their date of publication for example, the sciences and social sciences in which one cites, say, "the Johns Hopkins study of brain function"or if the author cited is notorious for example, HIV denialist Peter Duesberg on the cause of AIDS.
The use of author—date systems helps the reader easily identify sources that may be outdated. If the same source is cited more than once, even a reader unfamiliar with the author may remember the name. It quickly becomes obvious if the publication is relying heavily on a single author or single publication.
When many different pages of the same work are cited, the reader does not need to flip back and forth to footnotes or endnotes full of " ibid. With the author—date method, there is no renumbering hassle when the order of in-text citations is changed, which can be a scourge of the numbered endnotes system if house style or project style insists that citations never appear out of numerical order.
Parenthetical referencing works well in combination with substantive notes. When the note system is used for source citations, two different systems of note marking and placement are needed—in Chicago Style, for instance, "the citation notes should be numbered and appear as endnotes.
The substantive notes, indicated by asterisks and other symbols, appear as footnotes" "Chicago Manual of Style" This approach can be cumbersome in any circumstances. When it is not possible to use footnotes altogether probably because of the publisher's policy, it results in two parallel series of endnotes, which can be confusing to readers.
Using parenthetical referencing for sources avoids such a problem. The reader can find the in-text author—date citations of a specific work more easily. Finding in-text numbered citations is more difficult because some will not appear if they are included in ranges.
Disadvantages[ edit ] The principal disadvantage of parenthetical references is they take up space in the main body of the text and are distracting to a reader, especially when many works are cited in a single place which often occurs when reviewing a large body of previous work.
Numbered footnotes or endnotes, by contrast, can be combined into a range, e. However this disadvantage is offset by the fact that parenthetical referencing may be economical for the overall document since, for instance, " Smith In many disciplines in the arts and humanities, date of publication is often not the most important piece of information about a particular work.
Thus, in author—date references such as " Dickens Compare a reference in a science discipline such as "The last survey indicated that four hundred were left in the wild Jones et al.
The reader of certain forms of arts and humanities scholarship may thus be better aided by the use of author—title referencing styles such as MLA: Historical scholarship is an exception, since, when citing a primary source, date of publication is meaningful, though in most branches of history footnotes are preferred on other grounds.
Generally speaking, however, it is instructive that author—date systems such as Harvard were devised by scientistswhereas author—title systems such as MLA were devised by humanities scholars.
Similarly, because works are frequently reprinted in many arts and humanities disciplines, different author—date references might refer to the same work.
For example, " Spivak ", " Spivak ", and " Spivak " might all refer to the same essay — and might be better rendered in author—title style as " Spivak 'Subaltern' ". Rules can be complicated or unclear for non-academic references, particularly those where the personal author is unknown, such as government-issued documents and standards.
When removing a portion of text which has citations in it, the editor s must also check the Reference sections to see if the sources cited in the removed text is used elsewhere in the paper or book, and if not, to delete any reference not actually cited in the text although this issue can be eliminated by the use of reference manager software.
The use of the author—date methods but not author—title can be confusing when used in monographs about particularly prolific authors. In-text citation and back-of-the-book listings of works arranged by date of publication are conducive to errors and confusion: The mixing of text with frequent parentheses and long strings of numbers is typographically inelegant.
Most historical journals apart from economic and social history use footnotes because of the need for maximum flexibility. Primary source references to archives, etc. An interesting example of this arose with the famous work of the anthropologists John and Jean Comaroff, Of Revelation and Revolution which treated historical events from anthropological perspective: Author—title[ edit ] In the author—title or author—page method, also referred to as MLA stylethe in-text citation is placed in parentheses after the sentence or part thereof that the citation supports, and includes the author's name a short title only is necessary when there is more than one work by the same author and a page number where appropriate Smith 1 or Smith, Playing 1.
A full citation is given in the references section.The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. A content note generally contains useful information and explanations that do not fit into the primary text itself.
Content notes may be given as footnotes or endnotes or even a combination of both footnotes and endnotes. Such content notes may themselves contain a style of parenthetical referencing.
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How to Write an Interview Essay. In this Article: Interviewing for an Essay Writing the Essay Community Q&A An interview essay is designed to give the reader a general impression of the interview subject and to present his or her thoughts on a select group of topics.
How to write a narrative essay? Writing a narrative essay is basically writing a story connected with personal experiences. The key element of a narrative essay is a defined point of view presented in the paper and delivered through sharing emotions and sensory details with the reader.
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