Scientific integrity is at the forefront of the scientific research enterprise. This paper provides an overview of key existing efforts on scientific integrity by federal agencies, foundations, nonprofit organizations, professional societies, and academia from to April It serves as a resource for the scientific community on scientific integrity work and helps to identify areas in which more action is needed.
Artistic research[ edit ] The controversial trend of artistic teaching becoming more academics-oriented is leading to artistic research being accepted as the primary mode of enquiry in art as in the case of other disciplines.
As such, it is similar to the social sciences in using qualitative research and intersubjectivity as tools to apply measurement and critical analysis. It is based on artistic practices, methods, and criticality. Through presented documentation, the insights gained shall be placed in a context.
This may be factual, historical, or background research. Background research could include, for example, geographical or procedural research. Patricia Leavy addresses eight arts-based research ABR genres: Documentary research Steps in conducting research[ edit ] Research is often conducted using the hourglass model structure of research.
The major steps in conducting research are: Often, a literature review is conducted in a given subject area before a research question is identified.
A gap in the current literature, as identified by a researcher, then engenders a research question. The research question may be parallel to the hypothesis.
The hypothesis is the supposition to be tested. The researcher s collects data to test the hypothesis. The researcher s then analyzes and interprets the data via a variety of statistical methods, engaging in what is known as empirical research.
The results of the data analysis in rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis are then reported and evaluated.
At the end, the researcher may discuss avenues for further research. However, some researchers advocate for the reverse approach: The reverse approach is justified by the transactional nature of the research endeavor where research inquiry, research questions, research method, relevant research literature, and so on are not fully known until the findings have fully emerged and been interpreted.
Rudolph Rummel says, " It is only when a range of tests are consistent over many kinds of data, researchers, and methods can one have confidence in the results.
Maurice Hilleman is credited with saving more lives than any other scientist of the 20th century. This process takes three main forms although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure:Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
ScienceDirect is the world's leading source for scientific, technical, and medical research. Explore journals, books and articles. Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in the publication of professional scientific research.A Lancet review on Handling of Scientific Misconduct in Scandinavian countries provides the following sample definitions: (reproduced in The COPE report ).
Danish definition: "Intention or gross negligence leading to fabrication of. Carlos JP. (). Comments on Fluoride.
Journal of Pedodontics Winter: CDC. (). Recommendations for Using Fluoride to Prevent and Control Dental Caries in the United States. Each year since , Agency scientists and engineers have submitted nominated scientific and technological papers through an internal Agency review process managed by the Office of Research .
Advance your research Discover scientific knowledge, and make your research visible.