Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. The book of Exodus was written by Moses around B. This book is historical because it gives the reader, an account of Moses birth.
Israel to be enslaved and oppressed years in a foreign country; Exodus For the most part, these time periods provide only relative dating and show which occupational levels were contemporaneous with comparable strata in other sites Archer For in these layers they have discovered that particular types of pottery are repeatedly found in particular layers that have the same sequence.
Study of this archaeological condition has revealed that both soil layer and its matching type of pottery were tied with a specific people and their culture. Pottery chronology has, Livingston observes, been refined to the extent that archaeologists can, for the most part come within about fifty years of dating the beginning and end of any occupation site.
Other artifacts found by archaeologists that aid in identifying people and dating events include such things as buildings, home utensils, implements used for farming, hunting, and manufacturing, weapons of war, art objects, tombs, bones, weights, coins, and, most importantly, inscriptions.
Incomplete limmu lists, recovered from archaeological artifacts, go back prior to B. A complete collection, however, has been assembled from records dating from to B. Thiele has dealt at length with the issue of dating the Hebrew kings in detail and has established a complete list.
Astronomical Sources As Livingston What is not known from this information, however, is when these things occurred with respect to an absolute reference point, which for the West is the birth of Christ.
Help in such cases can come from astronomical data. Writing on the Egyptian dynasties as reference points, he notes that the Sothic cycle makes it possible to assign an absolute date to the major dynasties and to many individual kings in Egyptian history. From the king lists a fairly complete relative chronology may be determined.
However, it is not known from this data when these things occurred with respect to the absolute reference which the West has accepted, namely, the birth of Christ. However, given the event which marked the beginning of the solar year for the Egyptians, namely, the rising of the Dog Star, Sothis, it is possible to correlate the relative chronology of the Egyptian king lists with the absolute chronological framework accepted in the West.
Livingston records that on good evidence the rising of Sothis occurred in A.
With this information, it has been possible to take the three instances of when Sothis is reported to have risen on a certain calendrical day in a certain royal year and, ascertaining where the calendar was in its cycle, assign and absolute date to the royal year.
The earliest of these, he says, is B. Having determined this chronological framework, it is possible, Livingston argues, to establish a fixed checkpoint for another culture whenever that culture intersects with that of Egypt.
Also referencing the Sothic cycle, Archer In the ninth year of Amenhotep I, a heliacal rise of Sothis was observed on the ninth day of the third month of summer. Modern astronomers have calculated that, if the observation was made from Memphis or Heliopolis, such an observation could only have been made on that day in BC.
If the observation was made in Thebes, however, it could only have taken place in The latter choice is usually accepted as correct since Thebes was the capital of early 18th dynasty Egypt; hence, Amenhotep I is given an accession date in BC, although the possibility of BC is not entirely dismissed.
This is significant from a biblical perspective because if, as argued for below, the Exodus took place in BC the early date then it took place in the reign of the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep II who followed Amenhotep I.
Chronological framework of the Pentateuch—Genesis through Deuteronomy In establishing a chronology for the Pentateuch two broad time periods are considered; the time period for Genesis, and the time period for Exodus through Deuteronomy.
For Genesis, there are two chronological frameworks to be considered; that which is prior to the Patriarchs, and that which is for the Patriarchs.
In the case of Exodus through Deuteronomy, the prominent chronological factor which establishes the chronological framework is the date of the Exodus.
Chronological framework prior to the Patriarchs Genesis In constructing a chronology for the Pentateuch is important to understand that for the time period before the Patriarchs GenOT data are very limited and concise and there exists the possibility of gaps in the genealogical biblical records recorded in Genesis 5 and 11 Archer Rather, like those in Matthew 1 or Luke 3, their main purpose was theological see Kitchen One may question, therefore, whether these genealogies are really to be understood as being continuous throughout.
There are indications which suggest that this is not the case.
One such indication is found in the phrase "A begat B" which does not always imply direct parenthood. This is shown by its use in Matthew 1 in cases where links are known from the OT to have been omitted.
Terms like "son" and "father" can mean not only ' grand son' and ' grand father' but also 'descendant' and 'ancestor' respectively. Thus, in Genesis 5 and 11, 'A begat B' may often mean simply that 'A begat the line culminating in B.
In addition, there are some problems associated with the biblical data and external evidence as well. For example, Kitchen If the birth of Abraham is taken to be about B.
However, on the basis of Mesopotamian evidence this date is excluded because it would fall some or years after the period of the Gilgamesh of Uruk for whom in both Epic and Sumerian King List the Flood was already an event of distant past.
All of this, however, does not necessarily mean the genealogical data recorded in Genesis 5 and 11 are without any factual basis. On the other hand, given present knowledge, it is not possible to establish any absolute dates Kitchen It is not even possible to establish a relative chronology from Adam to Terah with reasonable certainty owing to the possibility of gaps in the genealogical biblical record Archer Chronological framework of the Patriarchs Genesis Biblical scholars are not all agreed on the date of the Patriarchal age Kitchen Bible Old Testament: The Major Prophets Summary by Michael McGoodwin, prepared Acknowledgement: These books have been summarized using The New International Version Study Bible (NIV translation , published Zondervan ).
From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes Bible: The Old Testament Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays.
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paragraph essay writing elementary my career development essay job-career about my older sister essay cousins i love books essay u moment. Summary of the Books of the Old Testament Essay Marsha D. Owen Introduction to Biblical Literature June 6, Summary of the books of the Old Testament Books Numbers The book of Numbers is mostly law, with some narrative.
1 Course: BIBL B34 Summary of the books of the Old Testament Books Exodus (Narrative) Moses is recorded as the author of Exodus. The documented date is between B.C., which is approximately as Genesis.
The book of Romans has been hailed by many as one of the most important books of the New Testament. The reason is obvious: aside from the fact that theologians and famous reformers constantly refer to it as one major source of fundamental theological truths, it .